Lockheed Martin is developing concepts for safe, affordable Two Stage to Orbit (TSTO) reusable launch vehicles as part of NASA s Space Launch Initiaiive. This paper discusses the options considered for the design of the TSTO, the impact of each of these options on the vehicle configuration, the criteria used for selection of preferred configurations, and the results of the selection process. More than twenty configurations were developed in detail in order to compare optioiis such as propellant... Topics: RESEARCH AIRCRAFT, HISTORIES, PROTOTYPES
The term of the second year of the award is the period from March 15, 2001 to March 14, 2002. As was the specified goal of the second year, we analyzed the spatial and spectral X-ray data for several young supernova remnants. I published a paper about an analysis of the ROSAT, ASCA, and RXTE data for the supernova remnant SN 1006. A copy of this paper is enclosed. As described in the paper, we believe that we accurately modeled the nonthermal X-ray emission from the remnant. The results of this... Topics: PROPULSION, REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES, PROTOTYPES, ROCKET ENGINES
byNash-Stevenson, S. K.; Reddy, B. R.; Venkateswarlu, P
A summary is presented of the spectroscopic study of three systems: LaF3:Ho(3), LaF3:Er(3) and CaF2:Nd(3). When the D levels of Ho(3) in LaF3 were resonantly excited with a laser beam of 640 nm, upconverted emissions were detected from J (416 nm), F (485 nm), and E (546 nm) levels. Energy upconverted emissions were also observed from F and E levels of Ho(3) when the material was excited with an 800 nm near infrared laser. When the D levels of Er(3) in LaF3 were resonantly excited with a laser... Topics: SCHEDULES, SPACECRAFT CONTROL, TELEMETRY, PAYLOADS, PROTOTYPES, WORKSTATIONS
Surfaces on the leading edge of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (e.g., surface facing the velocity direction), such as on the International Space Station, are subject to atomic oxygen attack, and certain materials are susceptible to erosion. Therefore, ground-based laboratory testing of the atomic oxygen durability of spacecraft materials is necessary for durability assessment when flight data are not available. For accurate space simulation, the facility is commonly calibrated on the basis of... Topics: ROBUSTNESS (MATHEMATICS), RUNWAYS, PRECISION, PROTOTYPES, SPACING, AIRPORTS, ROUTES
Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is... Topics: BROADCASTING, PARALLEL PROCESSING (COMPUTERS), PROTOTYPES, DATA STRUCTURES, MESSAGES, TILES,...
byJenkins, Gregory S.; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C
The horizontal and vertical transport of biomass fire emissions in West Africa during November 1998 through February 1999, are examined using all available data including wind, fire, aerosol, precipitation, lightning and outgoing longwave radiation. Ozonesonde data from the Aerosols99 Trans-Atlantic cruise are also included with rain and wind analyses. The results here support earlier studies that ozone and ozone precursors associated with biomass burning are confined to the lower troposphere... Topics: AUTONOMY, DECISION MAKING, INFORMATION ANALYSIS, BEHAVIOR, DECISION THEORY, PROTOTYPES
The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access,... Topics: INTERFEROMETERS, METROLOGY, DEGREES OF FREEDOM, THEODOLITES, PROTOTYPES, SENSITIVITY, ROTATION,...
NASA and Lockheed-Martin approached the FSW machine vendor community with a specification for longitudinal barrel production FSW weld machines and a shorter travel process development machine in June of 2000. This specification was based on three years of FSW process development on the Space Shuttle External Tank alloys, AL2 195-T8M4 and AL22 19-T87. The primary motivations for changing the ET longitudinal welds from the existing variable polarity Plasma Arc plasma weld process included: (1)... Topics: MARS SURFACE, ROVING VEHICLES, INSTRUMENT ORIENTATION, AUTONOMY, PROTOTYPES
The Forum was held to present the results of recent and current work intended to provide basic information required for demonstration of lean, premixed prevaporized combustors for aircraft gas turbine engine application. Papers are presented which deal with the following major topics: (1) engine interfaces; (2) fuel-air preparation; (3) autoignition; (4) lean combustion; and (5) concept design studies. Topics: CENTRIFUGES, PIEZOELECTRICITY, SHAKERS, ACTUATORS, EARTHQUAKES, PROTOTYPES, SEISMIC WAVES
bySeaman, Nelson L.; Stauffer, David R.; Munoz, Ricardo C
The objective of this investigation was to study the role of shallow convection on the regional water cycle of the Mississippi and Little Washita Basins of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) using a 3-D mesoscale model, the PSU/NCAR MM5. The underlying premise of the project was that current modeling of regional-scale climate and moisture cycles over the continents is deficient without adequate treatment of shallow convection. At the beginning of the study, it was hypothesized that an improved... Topics: AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS, OPTICAL RADAR, PROTOTYPES, DEPLOYMENT, ANTARCTIC REGIONS, AUTONOMY
The International Space Station (ISS) will support several facilities dedicated to scientific research. One such facility, the Biotechnology Facility (BTF), is sponsored by the Microgravity Sciences and Applications Division (MSAD) and developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The BTF is scheduled for delivery to the ISS via Space Shuttle in April 2005. The purpose of the BTF is to provide: (1) the support structure and integration capabilities for the individual modules in which biotechnology... Topics: KERNEL FUNCTIONS, COMPONENT RELIABILITY, SUPERCOMPUTERS, VOIDS, PROTOTYPES, MIGRATION
byGreer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mar
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer... Topics: AUTONOMY, SPECIFICATIONS, GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS, AUTOMATIC CONTROL, PROTOTYPES, SPACECRAFT CONTROL
From the bitsavers.org collection, a scanned-in computer-related document.xerox :: sdd :: memos 1977 :: 19771013 October Status Report For Advanced Design And User Prototypes Group Topics: design, prototypes, prototyping, janus, ibm, specification, user, walkthrough, smalltalk, interface
This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA. Topics: ALGORITHMS, PROGRAM VERIFICATION (COMPUTERS), THEOREM PROVING, PROTOTYPES, DOMAINS
Nickel-base superalloys are the current choice for high-temperature jet engine applications such as turbine blades and vanes. However, after more than five decades of use, nickel-base superalloys have reached their limit, since the operating temperatures in gas turbine engines are now approaching the melting temperature of these alloys. Thus alternative materials, such as lightweight NiAl intermetallic alloys with superior properties, (e.g., high melting temperature, high thermal conductivity,... Topics: SPACECRAFT ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, CODERS, SATELLITE COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, PULSE...
bySliney, Harold E.; Waters, William J.; Soltis, Richar
Composite coatings containing chromium carbide, stable fluorides and silver were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the coatings is very homogeneous compared to that of plasma sprayed and sintered versions of the same chemical composition. Friction and wear of MS212-coated and baseline uncoated aluminum and Inconel X-750 are compared. At room temperature, the friction and wear of coated aluminum is dramatically better compared to the baseline. The acceptable load is limited... Topics: DATA SYSTEMS, DISPLAY DEVICES, ULTRASONIC SCANNERS, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS, WAVEFORMS,...
Passive microwave satellite observations have frequently been used to observe changes in sea ice cover and concentration. Comiso et al. showed that there may also be a direct relationship between the thickness of snow cover (h(sub s)) on ice and microwave emissivity at 90 GHz. Because the in situ experiment of experiment of Comiso et al. was limited to a single station, the relationship is re-examined in this paper in a more general context and using more extensive in situ microwave... Topics: SCIENTIFIC VISUALIZATION, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, DATA ACQUISITION, FRAMES (DATA PROCESSING), COMPUTER...
Blackglas(Trademark) polysiloxane systems produce silicon oxycarbide glasses by pyrolysis in inert atmosphere. The silicon oxycarbides evidence oxidative degradation that limits their lifetime as composite matrices. The present study characterizes bonding rearrangements in the oxycarbide network accompanying increases in pyrolysis temperature. It also addresses the changes in susceptibility to oxidation due to variations in the distribution of Si bonded species obtained under different... Topics: AMPLIFIER DESIGN, OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS, TRANSDUCERS, SIGNAL PROCESSING, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT,...
bySmith, Howard A.; Gutermuth, R., et al; Allen, L.; Megeath, T.; Barmby, P.; Calvet, N.; Fazio, G.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P.; Marengo, M.
The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard Spitzer has imaged regions of star formation (SF) in its four IR bands with spatial resolutions of approximately 2''/pixel. IRAC is sensitive enough to detect very faint, embedded young stars at levels of tens of Jy, and IRAC photometry can categorize their stages of development: from young protostars with infalling envelopes (Class 0/1) to stars whose infrared excesses derive from accreting circumstellar disks (Class 11) to evolved stars dominated by... Topics: SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAY DEVICES, HELICOPTERS, EXPERT SYSTEMS, AIRCRAFT...
bySnowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T
This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These ''shadows'' are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the... Topics: SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, DATA MANAGEMENT, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, DATA BASES, PROTOTYPES, INTERNETS, SUBROUTINE...
byLeventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Charikli
In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same... Topics: ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), PARALLEL COMPUTERS, INTERFACES, RELIABILITY ANALYSIS, COMPUTER...
byButler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A
The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly... Topics: DATA CONVERSION ROUTINES, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, PROTOTYPES, ON-LINE SYSTEMS,...
Histoire entre science fiction et thriller utilisant un format de narration à mi-chemin entre le livre audio et la saga mp3, appelé "Livre immersif". Topics: livre audio, audio, livre, adrien mangold, mangold, prototypeS, science fiction, thriller, mp3,...
We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user... Topics: PROTOTYPES, ARCHITECTURE (COMPUTERS), SIMULATORS, SIMULATION, INTERFACES, TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT,...
THE METHODS USED TO PLOT THE WIND, INCLUDING THE LIMITS AND THE ACCURACY ACHIEVED ARE DESCRIBED ALONG WITH AN EXAMINATION OF THE CORRECTIONS WHICH APPLY TO THE TERMS OF THE GENERAL EQUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM OF A THERMISTOR. THE LIMITED VALUES OF THESE CORRECTIONS AS FUNCTIONS OF THE SOUNDING CONDITIONS ARE ESTIMATED AND COMPARED AMONG THEMSELVES TO DETERMINE THE MOST SUITABLE METHODS OF EXPLOITATION. Topics: GAS ANALYSIS, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, PROTOTYPES, RESIDUAL GAS, AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMETERS,...
An experimental study of the effects of an ingested vortex on the flowfield of a diffusing S-duct is reported. The vortex is generated through the use of a stationary pinwheel device mounted upstream of the diffusing S-duct. Three test conditions vary the location of the vortex in the duct inlet crossplane. For each condition of ingested vortex, a baseline S-duct and an S-duct with an array of vortex generators is examined. The data taken consist of duct inlet and exit crossplane surveys of... Topics: CONVULSIONS, LOW COST, MORTALITY, PROTOTYPES, DISABILITIES, EPILEPSY, MEASURING INSTRUMENTS,...
This paper provides an overview of stage separation activities for NASA's Hyper-X program; a focused hypersonic technology effort designed to move hypersonic, airbreathing vehicle technology from the laboratory environment to the flight environment. This paper presents an account of the development of the current stage separation concept, highlights of wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamics investigations being conducted to define the separation event, results from ground... Topics: EARTH SCIENCES, COMPUTERS, INFORMATION FLOW, REAL TIME OPERATION, PROTOTYPES, REMOTE SENSING,...
System identification of the space station dynamic model will require flight data from a finite number of judiciously placed sensors on it. The placement of structural dynamics sensors on the space station is a particularly challenging problem because the station will not be deployed in a single mission. Given that the build-up sequence and the final configuration for the space station are currently undetermined, a procedure for sensor placement was developed using the assembly flights 1 to 7... Topics: FLYING PLATFORMS, HIGH ALTITUDE, PROTOTYPES, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, FABRICATION, FLIGHT CONTROL,...
byRodgers, Edward B.; Adler, Robert F.; Pierce, Harold F
The tropical cyclone rainfall climatology study that was performed for the North Pacific was extended to the North Atlantic. Similar to the North Pacific tropical cyclone study, mean monthly rainfall within 444 km of the center of the North Atlantic tropical cyclones (i.e., that reached storm stage and greater) was estimated from passive microwave satellite observations during, an eleven year period. These satellite-observed rainfall estimates were used to assess the impact of tropical cyclone... Topics: PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, FIRE FIGHTING, EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY, SPACE SUITS,...
byKirschner, A. M.; Robertson, C. F.; Carter, A. F
Design and characteristics of radial inflow turbine stage for use as an alternative to stage of Brayton cycle turbo-alternator compressor unit Topics: ELECTROLYSIS, LUNAR EXPLORATION, LUNAR TOPOGRAPHY, POWER SUPPLIES, PROTOTYPES, SOLAR CELLS,...
Biomedical Optical Company of America's suntiger lenses eliminate more than 99 of harmful light wavelengths. NASA derived lenses make scenes more vivid in color and also increase the wearer's visual acuity. Distant objects, even on hazy days, appear crisp and clear; mountains seem closer, glare is greatly reduced, clouds stand out. Daytime use protects the retina from bleaching in bright light, thus improving night vision. Filtering helps prevent a variety of eye disorders, in particular... Topics: INDUSTRIES, STEELS, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, THERMAL FATIGUE, EROSION,...
The chemical sensor market has been projected to grow to better than 40 billion dollars worldwide within the next 10 years. Some of the primary motivations to develop nanostructured chemical sensors are monitoring and control of environmental pollution; improved diagnostics for consumption; improvement in measurement precision and accuracy; and improved detection limits for Homeland security, battlefield environments, and process and quality control of industrial applications. In each of these... Topics: RUNWAYS, SAFETY, ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ANOMALIES, CLASSIFICATIONS, MONTE CARLO...
The efforts of this report concentrate on the design, development and application of massively parallel model based, image processing algorithms to deconvolve, reconstruct, or enhance degraded imagery. Algorithms have been developed to deconvolve the optical response function from a noisy or corrupted image or set of images. The algorithms have been applied to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Camera (FOC) imagery, to the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle... Topics: MANUFACTURING, PROTOCOL (COMPUTERS), ROCKET TEST FACILITIES, TEST STANDS, SENSORS, AUTONOMY,...
byFox, Dennis S.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna; Choi, Sung R
SiC/SiC composite materials targeted as turbine components for next-generation aero-engines are being investigated at NASA Glenn Research Center. In order to examine damage mechanisms in these materials, SiC/SiC coupons were impacted with 1.59 mm diameter steel spheres at increasing velocities from 115 m/s to 400 m/s. Pulsed thermography, a nondestructive evaluation technique that monitors the thermal response of a sample over time, was utilized to characterize the impact damage. A thermal... Topics: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION, OXYGEN ATOMS, CLEANING, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER,...
byMadaras, Eric I.; Kohl, Thomas W.; Rogers, Wayne P
An analytical model of dispersive pulse propagation in semi-infinite cylinders due to transient axially symmetric end conditions has been experimentally investigated. Specifically, the dispersive propagation of the first axially symmetric longitudinal mode in thin wire waveguides, which have ends in butt contact with longitudinal piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers, is examined. The method allows for prediction of a propagated waveform given a measured source waveform, together with the... Topics: PROTOTYPES, COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, TOLERANCES (MECHANICS), LAYERS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION,...